For the record, I did get this working, after some struggle.
First I installed the VirtualBox Extension Pack. Then in VirtualBox Settings -> Ports -> USB I deleted the existing USB Device Filter and added a new one with USB 3.0 selected.
Then in the VM I went through a few rounds of removing the device and driver from Device Manager and then reinstalling. Also had to select the device a few times from the popup list that appears when you click on the USB icon at the bottom of the VM window. Eventually it started working. Have read a few EPROMs, haven't tried writing yet.